The Cycles Of Climate Change

According to the rock record, until about a million years ago the climate followed a neat 41,000-year cycle of ups and downs. Then, abruptly, that cycle stopped operating, and another one — 100,000 years long — took over. Why? Some scientists speculated that a cosmic catastrophe had reset the climatic clock. Others simply shrugged. Now two paleoclimatologists — Steven Clemens, at Brown University in Rhode Island, and Ralf Tiedemann, at the University of Kiel, Germany — have shown that people have been asking the wrong question. The 100,000-year cycle was there, unnoticed, all along; the real mystery is not where it came from, but what turned up the volume.

The 41,000-year cycle was no mystery at all. That’s the time it takes the tilt of Earth’s axis to wobble from 22 degrees to 25 degrees from the vertical and back again. Those changes in tilt, or obliquity, affect the amount of sun each region of the planet gets, especially near the poles. And that, in turn, affects the climate.

The 100,000-year climate cycle was harder to explain. Astrophysicists had found Read the rest of this entry »

Does Government Spending Harm The Environment?

A market failure occurs when there is a gap between the private and social costs of an activity. That is, the social costs are higher than the private costs. The activity itself is something economists call an externality. For example, consider a factory where the production process throws off disgusting waste. If the factory dumps this junk into a handy river instead of disposing it in a less convenient, less harmful place, the resulting pollution is an externality.

Of course, the problem is that by using the river as a dump, production costs are lower than if the factory disposed of its waste in a socially responsible way, so the factory owner has little incentive not to pollute. This leaves the people and businesses along the river, who suffer the bad effects, to bear the cost–hence the term “social cost.”

The failure of the market to cover the costs of an externality is taken as an invitation for the government to step in and make private parties deal with the social costs. In this example, the government could promulgate regulations to stop river pollution by making it unlawful for the factory to dump waste in the river, which, in turn, would raise the private cost of production but lower the social costs borne by society.

At any rate, during the 1970s, the “correction” of market failures accelerated the pace of social regulation. In 1970, both the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Read the rest of this entry »

Getting Your Data Back from Crashed Laptop Hard Drive

Terrified that your valuable files vanished into thin air when your laptop’s hard drive suddenly crashed without warning? What are the laptop data recovery techniques that you can use? Here are some ways:

Retrieve those precious data by removing the malfunctioning hard drive from your laptop. Get or purchase an external enclosure device so you could connect the hard drive to a working computer via USB cable. Browse through your hard drive and transfer your files either to a second external hard drive or to the working computer. Oftentimes when you have large files such as videos and music, the transfer can take many hours to complete. Close the window to your hard drive when the transfer is done. Reinstall your operating system to your hard drive.

If you are a Mac laptop owner, you can transfer your files by borrowing a working Mac and using a FireWire cable to hook your hard drive into the functioning PC. Do not turn the working computer on while connecting. As you turn it on, press the T key and hold it down until you can see the FireWire icon. This will allow you to ‘Target Boot’. If booting is successful, you can now retrieve your needed files.

There are also available laptop data recovery software. You can purchase it from local computer stores or you can download at the reputable sites. There are free downloadable laptop data recovery software and there are Read the rest of this entry »

The Struggle Continues For Environmentalists Everywhere

Arriving in San Francisco last year, fresh from campaigning against road-building in Britain, I thought I was pretty aware of the global nature of the issues we’ve been tackling. But through getting to know the other winners of the 1995 Goldman Environmental Prize and talking to them about their work, I came to realize just how much the issues of “car culture,” and more broadly, of over-consumption and development, resonate around the world.

Congestion threatens us all.

In Britain over the past few years, the largest road-building program since the Romans threatened to reshape the country, from the white cliffs of Dover to the suburban streets of Manchester. But ordinary people have defended their landscapes and communities and have succeeded in putting the roads program into reverse. For the moment, the super tanker of British transport policy really does seem to be turning round, although there is still much to do to ensure that positive transport alternative are implemented. Read the rest of this entry »

Best Solution for Hard Drive Repair

Your old hard drive has served you enough for several years. Today it is time for you to say goodbye to your most useful tool in your computer system. Do not wait for the time when your drive gives up instantly because that would be tragic. It is better to give your drive the best opportunity for hard drive repair.

First, write down all the information about your drive. This can help you find easily a replacement similar to your old device. Details from model number, firmware code, data code, site code down to the Main Controller IC number must be included in your list. Next step is to search for the same device online. You can go to the site and enter the hard drive model in the search box at the topmost area. Although this cannot recognize the exact model, but a list of results is provided. Go through it and find a match using the numbers on your list. Once found, purchase it immediately. Wait for the package for at least a week or more to be delivered at your doorstep. When the box arrives, immediately check what’s inside it. The PCB, screwdriver, and instructions must all be present. If any is missing, contact the company. The five screws connected to the PCB must be removed using the screwdriver. Carefully replace it with the new one. Now turn on your computer and enjoy surfing. If you need hard drive repair dealing with PCB, replace it now.

Many computer users enjoy all the things they see on the internet. Some even spend more time in front of the computer than their friends do. Most people working in offices use the computer. Students also use computer in some of their classes. Both use the computer when they get home. This shows how computer becomes a part of people’s daily activities. Nowadays most computers work 24 hours a day. Computers that are working all day and all night are at risk of being damaged immediately.

Avoid hard drive repair by checking its health. Run the Check Disk Utility and CHKDSK for an initial check up of the status of the hard drive. The application will scan your hard drive to find any problem. When an error is detected, command it to repair the errors.

Open My Computer and right click on the selected hard drive. Click properties, then click tools, and click Check Now. It is recommended for a thorough hard drive repair to click ‘Automatically fix file system errors’, and then click ‘Scan for an attempt recovery of bad sectors’. A new window opens allowing you to choose from few options. Click Schedule disk check to start scanning. Experts suggest a hard drive health check up every 3 months to correct any errors.

Recovering Data from Mac Hard Drive Crash

One of the biggest mistakes that you can do in this digital world is thinking that hard drives are indestructible and files are forever. If you did not back up your data, then you have a serious data recovery mission to accomplish. If you are a Mac owner, there are several options to recover your data.

Borrow a friend’s Mac computer and utilize a FireWire cable to connect your computer to it. ‘Target Boot’ your Mac and remember to hold down the T key as you start. You are lucky when your files appear on your friend’s computer. In this case, the operating system of your hard drive is still fine but it needs to be reinstalled.

Mac hard drive recovery is also possible by employing good recovery software tailored for Mac OS. Some can be bought from stores and some are downloadable. There are free downloadable recovery software from reputable agents as well. These products often work similarly: install the software, select the source (defective drive) and choose a destination folder where you can safely store your retrieved data.

One of the options for Mac hard drive recovery is using the Disk Utility. You can do this by popping the Mac OS Install DVD into the optical drive. Press the Alt/Option key while you power up the PC. From the top menu, access the Disk Utilities, and then click Verify Disk and then Repair Disk under First Aid. When things are really out of hand, then it’s time to let your sick hard drive see a specialist. Costly as it may be, if your files were your treasured possession, then you’d be willing to bear the crunch.